• AREA 100 KSA:

    The new subject you’ll need to study on the ATPL course

If you’re an aspiring airline pilot, you’ll have surely heard of EASA’s new Area 100 KSA. Lots has been said about how this new training approach will be implemented into the ATPL subjects.

But if for whatever reason you’re unsure of what the Area 100 KSA is, how it will affect you as a student, or how the new EASA syllabus will change; don’t worry

We’ll explain you absolutely everything you need to know about the new Area 100 KSA below, but before we get started, our new pilots will summarise it for you in a fun video. Don’t miss it!

What is the Area 100 KSA and what is it for?

KSA (Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes) is a new perspective on the training which is based on the assimilation of the fundamental competencies when flying an aircraft, which previously had not been taken into account in the traditional subjects.

This method intends to prioritise reasoning and critical thinking above systematic memorisation of concepts.

At first, the possibility of changing the way the material is taught was considered, and dismissed due to the difficult this would cause to adapt the content such as 010 – Air Law.

Finally, it was decided to implement Area 100 KSA, as an additional subject to ensure improved training of future pilots.

Why is it called Area 100 KSA?

The name of this new subject is determined by the numerical code assigned to it: 100. As you know, all the traditional subjects on ATPL course have an assigned code such as 101 for Air Law, 032 for Performance, or 050 for Meteorology.

Learning Objectives of Area 100 KSA:

What does the new subject consist of?

With the drastic improvement of navigation technology, and ever improving safety and reliability of aircraft, the proportion of accidents provoked by human error have increased with respect to the total volume, hence the necessity to address pilot training to ensure optimum training and favour critical thinking when managing any error in flight.

Area 100 KSA encompasses a variety of topics with different Learning Objectives (LO) which are directed to:

  1. Internalise learnt competencies during training on land.
  2. Establish a seamless transition between theoretical training and flight training.
  3. Develop pilot’s critical thinking skills.

The training philosophy of the new Area 100 KSA is based on active learning and discovery by means of the simulated situations favouring the students involvement, testing the pilot both realistically and dynamically.

Area 100 KSA will provide the student with a series of Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes, which, makes up the Success Triangle.


✓ Basic knowledge
✓ Theory
✓ Technical data
✓ Proven facts
✓ Element description
✓ Procedures
✓ Legislation
✓ Etc.


✓ Goal setting and problem solving
✓ Leadership and team work
✓ Time management and decision making
✓ Reasoning and the application of knowledge
✓ Threat and Error Management (TEM)
✓ Work load management
✓ Mental calculations to execute approaches
✓ Prevention and recovery of abnormal positions (UPRT)
✓ Communication and other inter-personal skills


✓ Self-motivation
✓ Self-confidence
✓ Integrity
✓ Honesty
✓ Optimism
✓ Enthusiasm
✓ Cooperation
✓ Commitment

Evidence Based Training (EBT)

How will this affect the actual ATPL syllabus?

Even though the new ATPL course isn’t subject to the passing of an official exam like with the other ATPL subjects, it will be necessary to pass the different tests the school deems necessary to guarantee the students competencies on the aforementioned objectives. For this, techniques related to Evidence-Based Training (EBT) will be applied.

Some recommended tasks in order to pass the Area 100 KSA before sitting the ATPL exams, are the following:

  • Tasks combining knowledge of various subjects.
  • Practical knowledge on different flight simulators, if applicable.
  • Recreation of situations or real scenarios individually, in pairs or groups.
  • Mental calculation tasks under pressure.
  • Communication tasks under different scenarios.
  • Preparation of oral expositions and presentation of projects in public.
  • Debates about real onboard situations, individually or in group.
  • Diction and oral communication practice.

In summary the aim is to provide the student a global and multidisciplinary training, more focused on practical application of knowledge and less of memorisation of theory.

Competency evaluation of Area 100 KSA

How the learner’s ability is assessed

Scoring such a complex subject with as many nuances as Area 100 KSA is not an easy task; a simple numeric scoring is not sufficient.

For this reason, in order to evaluate the competencies acquired by the student, Evaluation Reports will be used to determine if the student competent or not based on 5 levels of learning.

A report will be issued for each subject of the course which will evaluate noted strengths and weaknesses:

  1. General PERFORMANCE of the task.
  2. RESULT of the students performance during the task.
  3. FREQUENCY of appearance of the Learning Objectives observed.
  4. QUANTIFYING of the number of Learning Objectives observed.

5 levels of final result in Area 100 KSA

In order for you to get an idea of the five levels of competency in the Evaluation Report, here’s an example of what each one involves.


Poor performance causing an unacceptable reduction in the safety margin, rarely showing any of the Learning Objectives when required.


Insufficient performance which neither improved nor worsened the unsafe situation, only occasionally showing some of the Learning Objectives when needed.


Adequate performance generating a safe situation, regularly demonstrating the majority of the Learning Objectives when required.


Efficient performance which notably improved the safety of the situation, regularly demonstrating all the Learning Objectives when required.


Exemplary performance which effectively and efficiently improved the safety situation, constantly demonstrating all the Learning Objectives when required.

When the KSA 100 will be applied

AESA have established the time limit to implement the new subject KSA 100 as the 31st January 2022. This is the date all the flight training centres in Spain should have this included in their programmes.

At One Air, we already have official approval from AESA and we are implementing Area KSA 100 in the different courses where required:

Also, closely related to KSA 100 you should know we are the Spanish school with the highest number of aircraft authorised for UPRT (Upset Prevention & Recovery Training); imperative for managing loss of control in flight.

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